The affinity and kinetics of CD4 binding to the AP Schematics are shown to the right of A and B. Author contributions XR, Conception and design, Acquisition of data, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting or revising the article, Contributed unpublished essential data or reagents. Features and development of Coot. Although not essential for infection in cell culture, Nef enhances viral replication and disease progression in vivo. Molecular Biology of the Cell. The accessory protein Nef was recognized early on as a potential target for inhibition of the pathogenic effects of HIV-1 Coleman et al.
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The HIV-1 Nef protein as a target for antiretroviral therapy. The structure also shows that the Nef core has both zike direct role in forming polar interactions with AP-2 and an indirect role in scaffolding the conformation of the central loop. Mutations in the regions of AP-2 that were already known to bind dileucine signals had the expected loss of interaction.
In contrast to most other crystal structures, the central loop from residues — was visualized in its entirety Figure 2A.
Nef complex as viewed from the membrane. These results corroborate the importance of core helix H3 in the AP-2 interaction and CD4 downregulation. The protein was eluted with 0. Support Center Support Center.
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Journal List eLife v. Interaction of HIV-1 Nef with the cellular dileucine-based sorting pathway is required for CD4 down-regulation and optimal viral infectivity. We performed additional mutagenesis to test for the functional importance of residues that were newly identified by the structure determination Figures 5 and 6.
A The unlocked conformation of AP-2 core bound to myristoylated Nef orange. Moler at the University of New Mexico. Analytical C099 order code. Alan Kayet al. The data were processed using Origin software MicroCal.
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Conservation and diversification of dileucine signal recognition by adaptor protein AP complex variants. A large-scale conformational aaike couples membrane recruitment to cargo binding in the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex. Global landscape of HIV-human protein complexes. Nef complex are unknown, but this model suggests that the binding would likely be tighter than for these isolated components, and the off rate correspondingly slower.
A Diagram of the plasmids used in Y3H analysis. All plasmids were verified by DNA sequencing.
Petersenet al. MilnerTofte and Harper. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
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We agree with this good suggestion and the two sections mentioned were sharply truncated. Anders Hejlsberg at Borland. The intramolecular interactions of H4 are with other sections of the central loop, explaining why this helix has not been observed in other structures of Nef.
CD4 downregulation depends on both Nef myristoylation Aiken et al. A modular polycistronic expression system for overexpressing protein complexes in Escherichia coli. The asymmetric unit contains four Nef: This information could be used to develop drugs that work by blocking the amino residues on AP-2 that bind to Nef. It seems straightforward that this helix could pivot out of the way, but this has yet to be directly tested.
A structural explanation for the binding of endocytic dileucine motifs by the AP2 complex. The map is contoured at 2.